During the course of the last century, English has gained acceptance as the lingua franca in science. A transition from a 'national' science model to a 'transnational' model - in which English is used - has been described in Spain and other non-English-speaking countries. This new model is reinforced in Spain through science policy measures oriented to enhance international visibility. However, it can make survival of national journals difficult. National journals play an important role in the more local topics and they provide support and structure to the national science systems. Criteria followed in research evaluation should consider both national and international publications.