The study reported here investigated the potential viability of open access (OA) models for commercial scholarly journal publishers by means of interviews with knowledgeable professionals in the business. The conclusion was that it is as yet unproven whether or not a viable OA business model exists. There are likely to be widely different approaches between different disciplines in the future, with OA unlikely to find acceptance in the humanities and social sciences. However, if any viable OA models do exist, they are likely to be more sophisticated than those tried hitherto,and some suggestions are made regarding possible variables that might be tested in future experiments. On the particular issue of 'free riders', it is suggested that the use of a Creative Commons Deed may enable publishers to continue to receive additional nonsubscription revenue from industrial users.